Glossary of Window Terminology

Angle Bar
The bar in the angle of a shop-front sash.
Arch Bar
A semicircular bar in a sash.
Architraves
The moulded border, or frame, to a window opening.
Back Flap
Any leaf of a folding shutter behind the front one.
Back Lining
The part of the weight box of a sash frame that is parallel to the pulley stile
Bar
The interior division members of a sash window.
Bay Window
A projecting window which rises from the ground.
Bead
A small moulding semicircular in section, generally used with a quirk or sinking.
Bit
The generic name for various boring tools operated in a brace.
Blocks
Pieces of wood fixed to the lower ends of architraves.
Bond
Any arrangement of component parts of a structure that causes the ends to overlap and so tie the whole together.
Bow Window
A bay window circular in plan.
Buckling
Applied to saw blades where the tool has been suddenly bent.
Bull's Eye
Small circular window.
Cames
The metal bands of supports over small panes of glass used chiefly to form or emphasise the pattern on stained glass windows.
Cased Frames
Sash frames whose sides are built up in numerous thin pieces as distinguished from those having solid jambs.
Casement
A sash hung on hinges; also a hollow moulding of the Gothic period.
Catherine Wheel Window
A circular window with radiating mullions.
Ceiling Light
A horizontal sash in a ceiling under a roof light.
Clout Nail
One with a flat round head.
Coach Screw
A large wood screw with a flat square head.
Cock Bead
A bead that projects from the surface.
Compass Plane
A smoothing plane with a circular sole.
Compass Saw
A small hand saw with a narrow blade for cutting curves.
Cot/Cradle Bar
A semicircular bar in a sash window.
Countersunk
The head of a screw when let in flush with the surface.
Cross-Cut Saw
A machine saw used for cutting across the grain.
Cutter
The knife or blade of a planing or moulding machine.
Dormer
A perpendicular window in a roof.
Double-Hung Sashes
Frames in which both sashes are hung.
Double-Quirked Bead
A bead used in conjuction with two quirks.
Dragging
The rubbing of an ill-fitted sash upon its lower part.
Dry Rot
A general term to describe all forms of decay of dry or 'dead' timber.
Dry Timber
Timber from which all moisture has been extracted.
Elbow Lining
The linings of window jambs below the window sill.
Extension Bit
A centre bit with a moveable cutter for making various sized holes.
Fanlight
A sash above a transom in a door or window frame.
Fascia Board
The broad flat surface between the sash and cornice in a shop front.
Fir Timber
A generic term for pine and spruce timber used in construction.
Firmer Chisel
A stout paring chisel.
Flat Panel
One not raised or moulded in the middle.
Flush Panel
One level with the surface of the framing.
French Casement
A sash hung and used as a door.
Glazed
Filled in with glass.
Glue
An adhesive cement made by boiling down skins, hoofs and bones of animals.
Grooving Saw
A thick saw with coarse teeth for making grooves by machinery.
Hanging Sash
One sliding vertically and balanced by weights.
Head
The upper horizontal member of a door or window frame.
Hood Mould
A projecting moulding over window and doorway in Gothic architecture.
Jamb
The side of an opening in a wall.
Jamb Linings
Thin finishings covering the jambs of an opening.
Joint
The abutting surfaces of two prepared pieces of wood.
Jointing
The act of making joints with planes.
Knuckle of a Hinger
The back, or part containing the pivot.
Lamb's Tongue
A very flat ogee moulding used for sashes.
Margin Lights
Panes formed by bars near the sides of sashes and sash doors.
Meeting Rails
The two rails in a pair of lifting sashes that meet in the middle of the frame.
Mullion
A vertical division in a window frame.
Ogee
A moulding wave-like in section or consisting of reversed circular arcs.
Oriel
A projecting window that does not rise from the ground.
Pad Saw
A small narrow saw fitted to a handle or pad into which it can be telescoped when not in use.
Panel
Any surface sunk below its surroundings, particularly a thin wide piece inserted between the members of a framing.
Parliament Hinges
H or shutter hinges which project considerably.
Parting Bead
A thin slip separating sliding sashes.
Parting Slip
A rough thin slip separating the weights in a sash frame.
Plough
An adjustable grooving plane.
Pocket
The opening in a sash frame for the introduction of the weights.
Pulley
A wheel with a wide, slightly convex rim, to carry the belting that transmits motion from the driving shaft to the machine.
Pulley Stile
That part of the sash frame in which the axle-pulleys are placed.
Quarrel
A lozenge-shaped piece of glass in a leaded frame.
Quirk
A narrow groove or sinking on the side of a bead.
Quirk Cutter
A tool for cutting quirks in curved surfaces.
Rail
Any horizontal member in a framing.
Raised Panel
One with its central parts higher than its sides.
Reed
A bead without a quirk.
Return Bead
A bead worked on the two faces of an angle, with a quirk on each face.
Reveal
The outer sides or edges of a door or window opening in an outer wall.
Rip Saw
A tool for cutting in the direction of the grain.
Rose Window
A church window circular in elevation and divided by radial mullions.
Sash
The moving part of a window containing glass.
Sash Door
A door with the upper panels filled in with glass.
Sash Saw
A long tenon saw formerly used in cutting sash shoulders.
Shoulder
The abutting parts of a mortise and tenon joint.
Shoulder Plane
A metal rebate plane for preparing shoulders accurately.
Sill
The lowest horizontal member of a door or window frame.
Skeleton Framing
Any framing without panels.
Skylight
A sloping sash in the roof of a building.
Slack
An ill-fitted joint to a door or sash, or any portion of a frame that fits loosely.
Shutter/Sliding Door
One that moves on a rail or in a groove horizontally.
Staff Bead
A bead upon the salient angle with a quirk on each side.
Stiles
The outer vertical members of a door and similar framing.
Sunk Bead
A bead that is stuck below the surface.
Sunk Panel
One below the surface of the framing.
Torus Bead
A large bead usually accompanied by a fillet.
Venetian window
One with three lights in one frame separated by mullions.
Ventilating Slip
A piece of wood inserted upon the inside edge of the sill of a sash frame to enable the sash to be raised slightly without showing an opening at the bottom.
Window Back
The lining to the wall under a window frame.
Window Board
A narrow shelf between the window back and sill.
Yorkshire Light
A solid frame with one half glazed, the other fitted with a sliding sash.